BD and HD DVD Sizes
Video Technical Info
Folder and File Structure
Video file comparison
More info


Blu-ray Disc (abbreviation BD) is a next-generation optical disc format meant for storage of high-definition video and high-density data. The Blu-ray standard was jointly developed by a group of consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA). As compared to the HD DVD format, its main competitor, Blu-ray has more information capacity per layer, 25 instead of 15 gigabytes, but may initially be more expensive to produce. Wikipedia

AVCHD (Advanced Video Coding High Definition) is a file-based format for the digital recording and playback of high-definition video. Developed jointly by Sony and Panasonic, the format was introduced in 2006 primarily for use in high definition consumer camcorders. Favorable comparisons of AVCHD against HDV and XDCAM EX[3][4] solidified perception of AVCHD as a format acceptable for professional usage. Panasonic released the first professional AVCHD camcorder in autumn of 2008, followed by Sony in the first quarter of 2010. Wikipedia

HD DVD (High Density Digital Versatile Disc or High Definition Digital Video Disc) is a discontinued digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD-size (120 mm diameter) optical data storage media and 405 nm wavelength blue laser. HD DVD is promoted by Toshiba, NEC, Sanyo, and, most recently, Microsoft, HP [1], and Intel. HD DVD was discontinued in February 2008. Wikipedia


Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD Disc Sizes

BD-R Single layer 25GB (23.3GiB)
BD-R Dual layer 50GB (46.6GiB)
BD-RE Single layer REwriteable 25 GB (23.3GiB)
BD-RE Dual layer REwriteable 50GB (46.6GiB)
BD-XL Triple layer 100GB (93.1GiB)
BD-XL Quadruple layer 128GB (119.2GiB)

HD DVD-R Single layer 15GB (13.9GiB)
HD DVD-R Dual layer 30GB (27.9GiB)
HD DVD-RW Single layer ReWriteable 15GB (13.9GiB)
HD DVD-RW Dual layer ReWriteable 30GB (27.9GiB)
HD DVD-RAM 20GB (18.6GiB)

GiB = GigaBytes in computer world where 1 kilobyte = 1024 bytes

Video Technical Info for Blu-ray Disc, AVCHD and HD DVD

Blu-ray Disc
Video codecs MPEG2 - MP@HL and MP@ML
AVC/H264 - MPEG-4 AVC: HP@4.1/4.0 and MP@4.1/4.0/3.2/3.1/3.0
VC-1 - AP@L3 and AP@L2
Video frame size High Definition Video (frame size x frames/fields per second x interlaced or progressive) (frame aspect ratio)
1920x1080 29.97 frames interlaced / 59.94 fields (16:9)
1920x1080 25 frames interlaced / 50 fields (16:9)
1920x1080 24 frames progressive (16:9)
1920x1080 23.976 frames progressive (16:9)
1440x1080 29.976 frames interlaced / 59.94 fields (16:9)
1440x1080 25 frames interlaced / 50 fields (16:9)
1440x1080 24 frames progressive (16:9)
1440x1080 23.976 frames progressive (16:9)
1280x720 59.94 frames progressive (16:9)
1280x720 50 frames progressive (16:9)
1280x720 24 frames progressive (16:9)
1280x720 23.976 frames progressive (16:9)
Standard Definition Video
720x480 29.97 frames interlaced / 59.94 fields (4:3/16:9)
720x576 25 frames interlaced / 50 fields (4:3/16:9)
Max video bitrate 40 Mbit/s
Audio codecs Dolby Digital up to 5.1 channels (Max 640 Kbit/s)
Dolby Digital Plus up to 7.1 channels (Max 4.736Mbit/s)
Dolby Lossless up to 9 channels (Max 18.64Mbit/s)
DTS up to 5.1 channels (Max 1.524Mbit/s)
DTS HD up to 9 channels (Max 24.5Mbit/s)
Linear PCM up to 9 channels (Max 27.648Mbit/s)
Subtitles Image bitmap subtitles
Text subtitles - select different font styles, sizes and colors for the subtitles, or location on screen, depending on the disc's offerings. Subtitles can be animated, scrolled or faded in and out.
Other Features HDMV mode
Offers all features of DVD-Video and more. The authoring process is in line with DVD-Video creation.
BD-J mode
Offers unparalleled flexibility and features, because it is based on the Java runtime environment. It allows for extensive interactive applications, and offers Internet connectivity.
Maximum total bitrate 48 Mbit/s
Maximum data transfer rate 54 Mbit/s
More information Detailed Blu-ray Video specifications here and Encoding Video for Blu-Ray using H264/AVC


AVCHD
Video codecs AVC/H264 - MPEG-4 AVC
Video frame size High Definition Video (frame size x frame rate x interlaced or progressive) (frame aspect ratio)
AVCHD 2.0
1920x1080x59.94, 50 (16:9)
1440x1080x59.94, 50 (16:9)
AVCHD
1920x1080x29.97, 25 (16:9)
1920x1080x23.97 (16:9)
1440x1080x29.97, 25 (16:9)
1440x108023.97 (16:9)
1280x720x59.94, 50 (16:9)
1280x720x24, 23.97 (16:9)
Standard Definition Video
720x480x29.97 (4:3/16:9)
720x576x25 (4:3/16:9)
Max video bitrate -
Audio codecs Dolby Digital up to 5.1 channels (Max 640 Kbit/s)
Linear PCM (Max 1.5Mbit/s)
Subtitles Image bitmap subtitles
Subtitles are used in some camcorders to timestamp the recordings.
Other Features Menus
Maximum total bitrate 18 Mbit/s (DVD Media)
24 Mbit/s (other media)
28 Mbit/s (AVCHD 2.0)
Maximum data transfer rate -
More information http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AVCHD


HD DVD
Video codecs MPEG2
AVC/H264 - MPEG-4 AVC
VC-1
Video frame size High Definition Video (frame size x frame rate x interlaced or progressive) (frame aspect ratio)
1920x1080x29.97, 25 (16:9)
1920x1080x24, 23.976 (16:9)
1280x720x59.94, 50 (16:9)
1280x720x24, 23.976 (16:9)
Standard Definition Video
720x480x59.94 (4:3/16:9)
720x576x50 (4:3/16:9)
Max video bitrate 29.4 Mbits
Audio codecs Dolby Digital up to 5.1 channels
Dolby Digital Plus up to 7.1 channels
Dolby Lossless up to 9 channels
DTS up to 5.1 channels
DTS HD up to 9 channels
Linear PCM up to 9 channels
Mpeg Audio
Subtitles Image bitmap subtitles
Other Features HDi
HDi allows interactivity to be authored into a data format using XML and ECMAScript (standardized JavaScript) as its interpreted scripting engine. In contrast, the competing Blu-ray Disc high definition video discs will use either HDMV or BD-J for authoring interactive features.
Maximum total bitrate 30.24 Mbit/s
Maximum data transfer rate 36.55 Mbit/s
More information http://www.dvdforum.org/



Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD Folder and File Structure


Blu-ray Disc folder structure

    BDMV
      PLAYLIST
        xxxxx.mpls - files store information corresponding to Movie PlayLists. One file is created for each Movie PlayList. The filenames of these files are in the form “xxxxx.mpls”, where “xxxxx” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Movie PlayList.
      CLIPINF
        zzzzz.clpi - files store Clip information associated with a Clip AV stream file. The filenames of these files are in the form “zzzzz.clpi”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip.
      STREAM
        zzzzz.m2ts - files contains a BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream. The names of these files are in the form “zzzzz.m2ts”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. The same 5-digit number “zzzzz” is used for an AV stream file and its associated Clip information file.
      AUXDATA
        sound.bdmv - file stores data relating to one or more sounds associated with HDMV Interactive Graphic streams applications. This file may or may not exist under the AUXDATA directory. If it exists, there shall be only one sound.bdmv file and its filename is fixed to “sound.bdmv “.
        aaaaa.otf - file stores the font information associated with Text subtitle applications. The names of these files are in the form “aaaaa.otf”, where “aaaaa” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Font.
      BACKUP
        The BACKUP directory contains copies of the "index.bdmv” file, the “MovieObject.bdmv” file, all the files in the PLAYLIST directory and all files in the CLIPINF directory.

      index.bdmv - file stores information describing the contents of the BDMV directory. There is only one index.bdmv file under the BDMV directory and its filename is fixed to “index.bdmv”.
      movieobject.bdmv - file stores information for one or more Movie Objects. There is only one MovieObject.bdmv under the BDMV directory and its filename is fixed to “ MovieObject.bdmv “.

Example from Talladega Nights Blu-ray

\BDMV\index.bdmv
\BDMV\MovieObject.bdmv
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00000.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00054.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00058.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00059.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00060.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00061.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00062.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00063.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00064.mpls
\BDMV\PLAYLIST\00065.mpls
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00000.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00001.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00055.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00059.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00060.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00061.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00062.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00063.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00064.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00065.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00066.clpi
\BDMV\CLIPINF\00067.clpi
\BDMV\STREAM\00000.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00001.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00055.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00059.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00060.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00061.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00062.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00063.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00064.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00065.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00066.m2ts
\BDMV\STREAM\00067.m2ts
\BDMV\AUXDATA\sound.bdmv
\BDMV\BACKUP\index.bdmv
\BDMV\BACKUP\MovieObject.bdmv
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00000.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00054.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00058.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00059.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00060.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00061.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00062.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00063.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00064.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\PLAYLIST\00065.mpls
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00000.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00001.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00055.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00059.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00060.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00061.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00062.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00063.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00064.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00065.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00066.clpi
\BDMV\BACKUP\CLIPINF\00067.clpi
\AACS\MKB_RO.inf
\AACS\MKB_RW.inf
\AACS\ContentRevocation.lst
\AACS\Unit_Key_RO.inf
\AACS\Content000.cer
\AACS\CPSUnit00001.cci
\AACS\mcmf.xml
\AACS\DUPLICATE\MKB_RO.inf
\AACS\DUPLICATE\MKB_RW.inf
\AACS\DUPLICATE\ContentRevocation.lst
\AACS\DUPLICATE\Unit_Key_RO.inf
\AACS\DUPLICATE\Content000.cer
\AACS\DUPLICATE\CPSUnit00001.cci
\AACS\DUPLICATE\mcmf.xml
\AACS\DUPLICATE\ContentHash000.tbl
\AACS\ContentHash000.tbl


AVCHD folder structure

    PRIVATE
      AVCHD
        AVCHDTN
          thumb.tdt - Thumbnails
          thumb.tdi
        BDMV
          PLAYLIST
            xxxxx.mpl - files store information corresponding to Movie PlayLists. One file is created for each Movie PlayList. The filenames of these files are in the form “xxxxx.mpls”, where “xxxxx” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Movie PlayList.
          CLIPINF
            zzzzz.clp - files store Clip information associated with a Clip AV stream file. The filenames of these files are in the form “zzzzz.clp”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip.
          STREAM
            zzzzz.mts - files contains the video transport streams. The names of these files are in the form “zzzzz.mts”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. The same 5-digit number “zzzzz” is used for an AV stream file and its associated Clip information file.
          BACKUP
            Optional

          index.bdm - file stores information describing the contents of the BDMV directory. There is only one index.bdm file under the BDMV directory and its filename is fixed to “index.bdm”.
          movieobject.bdm - file stores information for one or more Movie Objects. There is only one MovieObject.bdm under the BDMV directory and its filename is fixed to “ MovieObject.bdm “.
    DCIM
      Still images
    MISC
      Optional data





HD DVD
Example from Pitch Black HD DVD
\ADV_OBJ\DISCID.DAT
\ADV_OBJ\menus.aca
\ADV_OBJ\VPLST000.XPL
\HVDVD_TS\BLACK.EV
\HVDVD_TS\BLACK.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE03.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE03.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE07.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE07.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE13.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE13.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE14.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE14.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE16.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE16.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE20.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE20.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE25.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE25.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE26.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE26.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE27.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE27.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE39.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE39.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE40.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE40.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE47.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE47.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE53.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE53.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE55.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE55.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE56.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE56.MAP
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE63.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE63.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE76.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\CHASE76.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\DARKFURY.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\DARKFURY.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\FEATURE_1.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\FEATURE_1.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\FEATURE_2.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\FEATURE_2.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\GAME.EVO
\HVDVD_TS\GAME.MA
\HVDVD_TS\HVA00001.VTI 
\HVDVD_TS\INTRO.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\INTRO.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\MAKING.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\MAKING.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\MENU.EVO   
\HVDVD_TS\MENU.MAP   
\HVDVD_TS\RAVE.EVO   
\HVDVD_TS\RAVE.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\UNILOGO.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\UNILOGO.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VIEW.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VIEW.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_INTRO.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_INTRO.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_LOOP.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_LOOP.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_MERC.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_MERC.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_ORRERY.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_ORRERY.MAP 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_SLAM.EVO 
\HVDVD_TS\VISUAL_SLAM.MAP 



Video File Comparison

Format
VCD
SVCD
DVD
Blu-ray
MKV HD
MP4 HD
H264 HD
WMV HD
AVI
DivX
XviD
WMV
MOV
QuickTime
FLV
MP4
AVI
DV
Resolution
NTSC/PAL
352x240
352x288
480x480
480x576
720x480²
720x576²
1920x1080
1280x720
1920x1080²
1280x720²
640x480² 640x480² 640x480² 720x480
720x576
Video
Compression
MPEG1
MPEG2
MPEG2, MPEG1
H264
VC1
MPEG2
H264
VC1
DivX, Xvid, MPEG4 ASP, WMV
H264
H264, FLV, VP6, VP7, VP8
DV
Video bitrate
1150 Kbit/s
~2000 Kbit/s
~7000 Kbit/s
~30Mbit/s
~10Mbit/s
~1000 Kbit/s
~1000 Kbit/s
~700 Kbit/s
25Mbit/s
Audio
Compression
MP1
MP1
MP1, MP2, AC3, DTS, PCM DTS-HD, EAC3, TrueHD, AC3, DTS, PCM AAC, AC3, DTS, WMA MP3, WMA, OGG, AAC, AC3 MP3, AAC MP3, AAC DV
Audio bitrate
224 Kbit/s
~224 Kbit/s
~448 Kbit/s
~448 Kbit/s
~448 Kbit/s
~128 Kbit/s
~128 Kbit/s
~64 Kbit/s
~1500 Kbit/s
Size/min
10
MB/min
10-20
MB/min
30-70
MB/min
50-150MB/min 50MB/min 4-10
MB/min
4-10
MB/min
4-10
MB/min
216MB/min
Min/74min CD
74min
35-60min
10-20min 4min-10min 10min 60-180min 60-180min 60-180min 3min
Hours/DVD
N/A
N/A
1-2hrs
30min-1hrs 1hrs 7-18hrs 7-18hrs 7-18hrs 20min
Hours/
DualLayerDVD
N/A
N/A
2-4hrs
60min-2hrs 2hrs 13-30hrs 13-30hrs 13-30hrs 37min
Hours/
Blu-ray 25GB
N/A
N/A
8-16hrs
2-4hours 6hours 40-100hrs 40-100hrs 40-100hrs 110min
DVD Player Compatibility
Great Good Excellent None None Good None None None
Computer CPU Usage
Low Low Low Very high Very high Low Low Low Low
Quality
Bad Good* Great* Superb* Excellent* Great* Great* Great* Good
Kbit/s = thousand bits per second
Mbit/s = million bits per second
² approximately resolution, it can be higher or lower
~ approximately bitrate, it can be higher or lower
* the video quality depends on the bitrate and the video resolution, higher bitrate and higher resolution generally means better video quality but bigger file size





More Info

Official Blu-ray Disc - http://www.blu-raydisc.com/

Official HD DVD - http://www.dvdforum.org/hddvd-tech.htm

Getting started with HD DVD - http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/forpros/hddvd/default.aspx
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