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C
Cable Modem

CAM
Caption
Capture
CAV
CBR
CCE
CD+G
CD-DA
CD-i
CD-Plus
CD-ROM XA
CDA
cdrdao
Cell
Chapter
Chroma bug
Chroma Key
Chroma noise
Cinema Craft Encoder
Closed GOP
CLV
Coaster
Codec
Combo Drive
Component Video
Composite Video
Compression
Convert
Coring
Crop
CSS
CVD



C
Cable Modem
A device that enables a broadband connection to the Internet by using cable television infrastructure. Access speeds vary greatly, with a maximum throughput of 10 megabits per second (Mbps).




CAM
This type of video was recorded by someone in a cinema with a camcorder and the audience can sometimes be heard or seen! The picture quality is usually OK but the sound is usually very bad and it is hard to make out speech.




Caption
A textual representation of the audio information in a video program. Captions are usually intended for the hearing impaired, and therefore include additional text to identify the person speaking, offscreen sounds, and so on.




Capture
Also called Cap or Capping - To capture video or TV/Sattelite signals to disk. This can include firewire capture from DV cameras. VCDhelp Capture Section




CAV
Constant Angular Velocity, the disc(CD/DVD) is read/written at a constantly increasing speed.




CBR
Constant Bit Rate - the bitrate is the same at any part of a single video or audio stream. VCD standard MPEG video and audio are constant bit rate as are most MP3 standalone audio files. Also see VBR (variable bit rate).




CCE
see Cinema Craft Encoder

http://www.cinemacraft.com/index.htm




CD+G
Compact disc plus graphics. A variation of CD which embeds graphical data in with the audio data, allowing video pictures to be displayed periodically as music is played. Primarily used for karaoke.




CD-DA
Compact disc digital audio. The original music CD format, storing audio information as digital PCM data. Defined by the Red Book standard.




CD-i
Compact disc interactive. An extension of the CD format designed around a set-top computer that connects to a TV to provide interactive home entertainment, including digital audio and video, video games, and software applications. Defined by the Green Book standard. CD-i Assn.




CD-Plus
A type of Enhanced CD format using stamped multisession technology.




CD-ROM XA
CD-ROM extended architecture. A mode 2,multi-session disk where data is on one session and audio/video on another(CD-Extra,Mixed-Mode).




CDA
CD Audio Track - audio files that are on CD media. You can play .cda files only from a CD-ROM. Often the CDA tracks are ripped to WAV or MP3 files.




cdrdao
A program that records / burns audio, video, and data files to CD-Rs/CD-RWs. Cdrdao records CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode based on a textual description of the CD contents. The program runs on a variety of operating systems including Linux and Windows (in command line mode or via a GUI). cdrdao homepage




Cell
A 'Cell' is a small segment of a chapter (or part). It is the smallest resolution at which DVD navigation commands can act (e.g. 'Jump to Cell 3 of Part 4 of Title 2'). Typically one chapter contains one Cell but on complex DVDs it may be useful to have multiple Cells per chapter. dvd.sourceforge.net




Chapter
A DVD 'Chapter' (somewhat confusingly referred to as a 'Part' in the parlence of DVD authors) is generally a logical segment of a Title such as a scene in a film or one interview in a set of cast interviews. There can be up to 999 Chapters in one DVD Title. dvd.sourceforge.net




Chroma bug
The basic "Chroma Bug" manifests itself as streaky or spiky horizontal lines running through the chroma channel, most notably on diagonal edges. As mentioned above, this problem has been around for a long time. It's only just now being noticed largely because one needs a good high-resolution display, such as a front projector and a six foot projection screen, to really see the problem clearly. In addition, the increasingly common use of large progressive displays has really allowed people to get up close to the screen and see every artifact magnified in great detail. Problems that might have gone unnoticed on a 20 inch interlaced TV suddenly hit you in the face. With the advent of relatively high resolution media like DVD, people are starting to compare the video image to the original film image, not to other forms of TV. And suddenly strange problems that people accepted in a TV picture, but would never be allowed on film, look out of place. The Chroma Bug is one of the most visible artifacts around, but because it's specific to MPEG and 4:2:0 encoding, there was nothing written about it until very recently. http://www.hometheaterhifi.com/volume_8_2/dvd-benchmark-special-r ... -2001.html




Chroma Key
The Chroma Key process is based on the Luminance key. In a luminance key, everything in the image over (or under) a set brightness level is "keyed"out and replaced by either another image, or a color from a color generator. Also known as Blue Screen Compositing, the
Chroma Key Process was made famous by films such as star wars where spacecraft miniatures were composited onto starfield backgrounds.




Chroma noise
Chroma noise affects areas of colour in the image. Instead of being clean, even areas of colour, chroma noise makes colours look grainy due to random noise being inserted into the colour signal. Chroma noise seems to particularly affect blue, although it can potentially be seen in any large expanse of a single colour. Chroma noise is pretty much exclusively an artefact of analogue video processing, and it is very rare to see it in modern, all-digital transfers. Increased MPEG macro-blocking artefacts are a potential side-effect of chroma noise, as the MPEG encoder attempts to encode the extra spurious random noise, leaving less bits for actual picture information.




Cinema Craft Encoder
A very high quality software encoder often refered as CCE .
Though there are different versions of CCE, Cinema Craft SP is the most known and used type http://www.cinemacraft.com/eng/product.html#sp .

Current price on this version is $1995 and can be purchased here :

http://www.cinemacraft.com/eng/purchase.html#sp




Closed GOP
When encoding MPEG video, a Closed GOP is one that uses no referenced pictures from the previous GOP at the current GOP boundary. For example the GOP is closed when it starts with an I Frame and subsequent B Frames do not rely on I or P frames from the previous GOP. Also see Open GOP.




CLV
Constant Linear Velocity, the disc(CD/DVD) is read/written at a constant speed.




Coaster
An authored disc that won't play, either due to improper authoring, poor media quality, or write error. The name is derived from the disc's uselessness as a DVD/VCD, may as well be used to set drinks on.




Codec
An acronym for "compression/deccompression", a codec is an algorithm or specialized computer program that encodes or reduces the number of bytes consumed by large files and programs. Files encoded with a specific codec require the same codec for decoding. Some codecs you may encounter in computer video production are Divx, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, Xivd, DV type 1 and type 2 for video and MP3 for audio.




Combo Drive
A DVD-ROM drive capable of reading and writing CD-R and CD-RW media. May also refer to a DVD-R or DVD-RW or DVD+RW drive with the same capability.




Component Video
A video system containing three separate color component signals, either red/green/blue (RGB) or chroma/color difference (YCbCr, YPbPr, YUV), in analog or digital form. The MPEG-2 encoding system used by DVD is based on color-difference component digital video. Very few televisions have component video inputs.




Composite Video
An analog video signal in which the luma and chroma components are combined (by frequency multiplexing), along with sync and burst. Also called CVBS. Most televisions and VCRs have composite video connectors, which are usually colored yellow.




Compression
The process of removing redundancies in digital data to reduce the amount that must be stored or transmitted. Lossless compression removes only enough redundancy so that the original data can be recreated exactly as it was. Lossy compression sacrifices additional data to achieve greater compression.




Convert
To change from one form into another. In video obviously it is to change one form of video into another. For example, many people like to convert divx to MPEG, quicktime to AVI, etc. Conversions to a final format is called encoding - an example is AVI to VCD MPEG-1. VCDhelp Convert Section




Coring
For noise reduction:
Coring is used to remove fine detail information that does not contribute significantly to the detail of the picture but which adds noise to the image. Imagine the detail information viewed on a scope. About the baseline you'd see primarily the noise information, with the detail extending beyond that. Now imagine that you sliced (or cored) this signal so that only the information above the noise on the baseline came through. You would be left with most of the detail information intact but with much of the noise information removed. The coring adjustment determines how far from the baseline the detail information removed. You want to use just enough coring to reduce the noise in the picture but not so much that the fine detail in the image is affected.


For black level proccessing:
http://neuron2.net/coring.html
Coring is the process where pixels are evaluated against a threshold value and set to pure black if below. This is a "poor man's" noise reduction in the black areas of an image and is implemented in many digital video cameras and capture chips (like the BT848 family).




Crop
To cut away pieces of a video stream without rendering; similiar to cutting a picture with scissors.




CSS
Content Scrambling System. In DVD-Video, an encryption scheme designed to protect copyrighted material that resides on a disc by periodically scrambling the data using encryption keys.




CVD
China Video Disk - a precursor to SVCD marketed since 1998. Resolutions are 352x480 NTSC, 352x576 PAL, 44.1khz audio (unlike 1/2 D1 DVD that is the same resolution at 48khz audio). Not all players will play CVD (compatible players). CVD Guide










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